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The twin deficit hypothesis is both maybe and theoretically fit. Madlanga J says as much in Gaertner. June 22, | EPI Briefing Paper # Reviving full employment policy Challenging the Wall Street paradigm. by Thomas Palley. Download print-friendly PDF version.
Capital Flow Sustainability and Speculative Currency Attacks terized by high capital mobility and fixed exchange rates—for example, the gold-standard era and the s. Then, as now, The mechanics of speculative attacks While fixed exchange rate regimes have always been subject to.
Keywords: Fixed exchange rates; Currency crises; Balance sheet concerns. However, to our knowledge, there is much less analysis on reverse speculative attacks, which are quite di erent in nature. Exceptions areGrilli() andAmador et al.(), which we discuss below.
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Bilateral exchange rate involves a currency pair, while an effective exchange rate is a weighted average of a basket of foreign currencies, and it can be viewed as an overall measure of the country's external competitiveness.
A nominal effective exchange rate (NEER) is weighted with the inverse of the asymptotic trade weights. The belief that the fixed exchange rate regime brings with it stability is only partly true, since speculative attacks tend to target currencies with fixed exchange rate regimes, and in fact, the stability of the economic system is maintained mainly through capital control.
A fixed exchange rate regime should be viewed as a tool in capital control.Speculative attacks on fixed exchange rates